One of the major global health care challenges today is to tackle debilitating neurological and psychiatric disor-ders that affect mood or emotion, and cognitive functions. The hallmarks of these diverse brain and behaviour disorders are neurodegeneration and/or altered neuroplasticity. Recent evidence highlight compromised neu-rotrophic and neurogenic characteristics on one hand and heightened neuroinflammation, on the other hand, associated with many central nervous system (CNS) disorders. The mood disorders that include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), etc., are chronic debilitating CNS disorders, which in the long run also appear to cause cognitive decline. The cognitive disorders, grouped together as dementia, include diseases as diverse as Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia (induced by acute and chronic vascular perturbations or ischemic stroke), etc., and are progressively neurodegenerative in nature. Another debilitating neurodegenerative condition is the cerebral ischemic stroke and the resultant vascular dementia cases are approaching an alarming level worldwide largely due to the lifestyle changes. Acute ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of death and long-term disability and the most unfortunate thing is the limited therapeutic.